There are approximately 1,000 mills in the US and Canada alone. These are producers of forest and paper products.
- Process control
- Effluent monitoring
- Biocide control
This industry is under intense pressure by regulators, environmental groups and others to decrease the harmful impacts caused by their effluents and solid wastes. The particularly large amounts of wastes and the relatively high toxicity of the wastes have given them this visibility.
Contaminated wastewater from pulp and paper mills can cause death of aquatic organisms, allow bioaccumulation of toxic compounds in fish, and impair the taste of downstream drinking water. Pulp and paper wastewater effluents are characterised on the basis of physical, chemical or biological characteristics, with the most important being solids content, oxygen demand and toxicity.